Revisiones en Cáncer 00077 / http://dx.doi.org/10.20960/revcancer.00077
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Revisión

Nuevos fármacos más allá de la inmunoterapia en cáncer escamoso de cabeza y cuello


Alberto Jacobo Cunquero Tomás, Alfonso Berrocal Jaime

Prepublicado: 2024-06-10

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El cáncer de cabeza y cuello (HNSCC) representa un desafío clínico significativo, especialmente en sus formas recurrentes y metastásicas. A pesar de los avances con agentes inmunoterápicos como pembrolizumab y nivolumab, más del 50 % de los pacientes no responden eficazmente. Este artículo revisa las terapias emergentes centradas en dianas moleculares específicas y no exclusivamente inmunológicas. Se destacan desarrollos en anticuerpos inmunoconjugados (ADC) como el sacituzumab govitecán y el enfortumab vedotina, que muestran resultados prometedores en estudios de fase II. También se examinan las vías de señalización como PI3K/AKT/mTOR y MAPK, que son cruciales en la tumorigénesis y en la resistencia a tratamientos. Además, se abordan terapias dirigidas, como los inhibidores de ciclinas, y terapias combinadas que podrían ofrecer nuevas esperanzas para abordar la resistencia a los tratamientos actuales. Este compendio resalta la necesidad de continuar explorando y desarrollando terapias que aborden las complejidades y la heterogeneidad del HNSCC para mejorar los resultados clínicos.

Palabras Clave: HNSCC. Anticuerpos inmunoconjugados. Anticuerpos biespecíficos. Terapias dirigidas. Radiosensibilizador.



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